COM 150 Mass Media
Study guide for first test
1/27/13 Glenn Booker
1. The basic model of human communication has a sender who encodes the message and transmits it in some way. The receiver of the message decodes it, and is influenced in some way.
2. The sent and received messages may not match due to noise. Physical (environmental), social (grammar, accents), cultural (ethnic), or psychological (mental distraction) noise can exist.
3. Two major ways to overcome noise are through feedback and role-taking.
4. Mass communication model has senders who are professional communicators, production specialists encode the message, messages are transmitted via a medium to a large and diverse audience who decode it. The receivers decode it and construct interpretations based on their backgrounds, and are influenced in some way.
5. Feedback and role taking don’t work well for mass communication because there are few mechanisms for feedback (letter to the editor?) and role-taking isn’t feasible for an audience in the millions.
6. Marshall McLuhan predicted the global village in the 1960’s.
7. The Dept of Defense built the Internet, originally ARPAnet, to have a means of large scale communication that would still work after World War III.
8. The major problems with digital media are that it moves too fast, and privacy and crime are major issues.
9. Cultural imperialism is when one culture displaces another through its media, products. This is done faster through digital media.
10. I’m guessing that those in power were not happy with Gutenberg’s printing press at first, because it reduced their power and control over people, but the church made a fortune selling mass printed indulgences, so they later liked the printing press.
11. The advent of mandatory public education in the 1830’s made reading much more popular!
12. The key cities for publishing after the Revolution were New York, Boston, and Philly.
13. Texts are expensive because they have a captive audience, are graphically intensive, use planned obsolescence, and the tenure system mandates frequent publishing.
14. Seven characteristics of newspapers include: at least weekly publication, use a mechanical printing press, available to all (for a price), are readable by average literacy, are timely, have news of general interest, and are stable over time.
15. Peter Zenger wrote for the NY World in 1735, and was charged with seditious libel for writing against the government. The jury found he wrote the truth, establishing the watchdog function of the press, and a key precedent for freedom of the press.
16. The newspaper Publick Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestick was shut down after one day for being subversive, and not containing approved material.
17. The Colonial press had old news, was very small (4 pp), published infrequently (when full), expensive, used limited technology presses, and was blatantly partisan.
18. The Penny Press was the paper for the people, containing human interest stories (gossip), and was supported by ad revenue.
19. Benjamin Day (NY Sun, 1833) was the first publisher to hire reporters and newsboys/girls, and used ads to keep paper prices low.
20. Society in the late 1800’s affected the growth of papers because of the increased literacy rate, rapid population growth from immigration, improved printing technology, and social interest in the Civil War.
21. Yellow Journalism started with the NY World and Joe Pulitzer’s comic of the same name, stolen by Randolph Hearst. In a battle for readership, ethics went out the window and they started writing blatantly false “sensationalism” stories. May have caused the Spanish-American War.
22. The Golden Age of newspapers was circa 1900-1920’s, because they had a large audience and no competition yet from radio or TV or the Internet.
23. Wire services are news sharing companies, such as AP, Reuters, Bloomberg, etc.
24. Syndicates share entertainment content, such as comics, Dear Abby, car talk, etc.
25. About 75% of newspapers today are owned by chains, such as Gannett, Knight-Ridder.
26. Future buyers of newspapers will be people concerned about local community issues and news, and young people looking for local ads.